Other name(s): Standard Galloway; Black Galloway; Red Galloway; Dun Galloway
Scientific name: Bos taurus
Country / Place of origin: Scotland
History: Although not accurately recorded, the history of the Galloway cattle points to its origins in Scotland. The Galloway was introduced to the Unites States in the late 1800s and has, since then, become a valued breed for its ability to thrive under sparse and less-than-ideal pasture conditions and to acclimate to various climates. The Galloway is now common in many parts of the world.There are now three types of Galloway Cattle: the standard or black Galloway; the Belted Galloway; and the White Galloway.
Current Uses: Beef. Because of the Galloway Cattle double hair coat, carcasses do not have the extra layer of back fat common to many other breeds.
Appearance: Galloways are medium-sized polled cattle with a double coat: a long outer coat of hair and a fur-like undercoat for insulation. The double coat helps the animal thrive in harsh weather conditions. The regular Galloway has a black, red, or dun (reddish brown) coat.
Average weight: 1700 - 2000 lbs.
Lifespan: 20 - 25 years
Grooming: Cows normally groom each other by licking the head, neck and back; they also rub against posts and other structures a few times a day. Additional, regular grooming, however, contributes to their overall health and productivity.The cow’s hooves should be trimmed regularly, which is best done by professionals. Their hair can be shampooed, conditioned, blow-dried, brushed, trimmed, and clipped as necessary to keep the cows clean and looking smart, especially if they are being shown. Some cattle owners enhance their barns by installing automatic motorized brushes that rotate when the cow leans against it, helping with the scratching and grooming.
Diet: A good quality pasture for grazing is the basic dietary requirement of cattle. The recommended pasture size per cow is 10 acres, without which, the diet should be supplemented with hay. The recommended quantity of hay is an average of 2% of the animal’s body weight per day (or 2 lbs. of hay per 100 lbs. of body weight). Supplements include grain mixes, protein and mineral cubes, and salt blocks, depending on the type of cow, its uses, and the local climate.Providing a constant supply of fresh water is essential. An adult cow consumes an estimate of up to 20 gallons of water per day.
Housing: Housing for cattle is essentially to give them shelter from extreme weather conditions. Barns, rub-in sheds, stalls, and other structures like windbreaks, should be available where the cows graze. Aside from manmade shelters, trees and tall bushes can provide resting places for cattle to minimize heat stroke or wind chill.Shelters will give the cows the option to seek safe haven from strong winds, extreme heat or cold, and heavy rains. Shelters should be strong, stable, spacious, well ventilated, and waterproof. Barns should be provided with water supply, and stalls should be lined with hay. They should also be cleaned regularly. Sprinklers and other cooling systems are recommended for areas that overheat during summer months. Professional and humane fencing should be provided. All poisonous plants should be removed from the pasture; and hay should always be kept dry (wet hay grows molds, becoming a health hazard for cows).
Health issues: Like other livestock, cattle require regular vaccinations and inoculations (for example, rabies inoculations) for disease prevention and health management. Similar to other mammals, cows can suffer a variety of ailments and health issues. A veterinarian should be on call and provide regular checkups and monitoring for the entire herd.
Behavior / Temperament / Activity level: Cattle are docile animals that have strong maternal instincts. They are big and bulky, and could, therefore, inflict harm without intending to. Handling and brushing them constantly while juvenile will help train them to be calm and trusting around humans, which is helpful especially when they need to be attended to by the veterinarian or groomer.Galloways are known to be calm and tame but can also be aggressive if threatened by predators.